前帖毋忘六四(一):港人與昂山素姬對話記(三之一)介紹了五月三十日星期一昂山素姬在其緬甸家中與香港大學一眾師生及公眾人士在香港大學的陸佑堂進行視像對話的第一部份,即昂山素姬的一篇講詞。惟該次視像對話的還有更精彩部份,就是昂山素姬回應不同人的提問。本帖老側將該部份問與答的錄音轉錄成文字,供本部落粉絲瞭解昂山素姬的思想。因提問踴躍,故須用兩帖來記錄。此帖先登錄頭十個提問及回答。下帖登錄餘下提問及答案。

請粉絲們注意:在該場對談中,發問者往往因禮貌或其他原因而並非單刀直入說出問題,有些先對昂山素姬說些感激、恭維的說話,有些則先歸納昂山素姬說過的某些話,然後才正式發問。因此,本帖所示的問題,並非聽到什麽轉錄什麽,只是老側按所聽到的經消化後提綱挈領而成,並非原本完整的問題。至於昂山素姬的答案,老側會儘量不做刪略。此外,並非所有問題都有意思,故此帖並非將所有問題及昂山素姬的回答見諸文字。

Q.1  What is the link between education and democracy? What roles might universities play in educating democrats? Should that be the core part of their mission? If so, what is your advice on how the universities can move forward? (此問題由港大社會科學系系主任 Ian Holliday 提出。此君當時在昂山素姬家中,是這次對談的最高負責人。)

A. 1  In my opinion, democracy and education are closely linked, because democracy is based on people, and the better educated people are, the more widely educated the public is, the better for democracy. … The work of the universities is not just to filled students’ head with facts, but to help them to become better citizens of the world. By doing that, you contribute to democracy.

Q.2  Wisdom and Virtue (此問題錄音並不完整,因此無法整理出整體問題的原貌。大概是問昂山素姬她如何看自己是否具有智慧及美德。問題乃由此次錄像對談在陸佑堂方面的主持、港大政治及公共行政系的陳祖為教授。也許陳教授在發問開始時,曾讃許昂山素姬為有智慧有美德之人,所以答案開始部份有昂山素姬的自謙之語。)

It would sound very arrogant if I was to say that I was full of wisdom and virtue. So I would like to say what I’ve already tried to do is to develop a sense of responsibility, try to fulfill my duties with that if possible, and that should be the biggest virtue of which I’m capable. I’m not sure whether I’m virtue in the sense of other people think of virtue, but I certainly put a lot of importance on duty, and I’ve tried to fulfill my duty as far as possible, and I’ve tried to acquire as much knowledge as I think it is necessary for me to carry out my duty. So  in that sense what I have done is try to live with conscience, and that is the biggest and best freedom in the world.

Q.3  As you know, much as been said about the need for a “concert of democracies” to strengthen cooperation among democratic countries. Also, as you know, Thein Sein just visited Beijing, and called China’s relationship with Burma as the most important diplomatic relationship for Burma. Do you see a trend emerging of non-democracies such as Burma and China and maybe Iran, North Korea, strengthening their relations in order to make the world save for authoritarianism? (提問人乃頗有來頭的傳媒人,名秦家聰。此君為當年中美建交之後中國政府允許駐北京採訪新聞的首個美國華裔記者。上世紀八十年代末此君經過一番尋根、考證,聲稱自己乃老側偶像蘇東坡之妹蘇小妹的丈夫秦觀的三十三世孫,並為此出版了 Ancestors, 900 Years in the Life of a Chinese Family《一個中國家族的九百年繁衍史》一書。當天的視像對談中,陸佑堂台上的兩個人,除了主持人陳祖為教授外,另一個就是他。)

A.3  It is possible that those governments which do not yet value would like to look upon each otehr as allies, but I think, in the long run, we must all go towards democracy, because it’s the system that put the greatest value on the people. It isn’t because we think democracy is perfect, but because democracy means respect for the people that we think democracy will succeed in the long run, because everybody wants to be respected. Maybe sometimes other things come before this, the desire and for respect, other things such as fear has stopped them from working for self-respect, but, in the long run, I think we would succeed, and I think even governments will understand that only if they respect the people will they in the long run be able to respect themselves.

Q.4  During the many years of seclusion and isolation, how do you keep your faith and maintain a clear mind? What will be your advice to our young generation when going through hardship in life? (提問者自稱乃港大畢業生,有一處於青少年階段的女兒。)

A.4  I’m going to mention a word which is not fashionable any more, but it’s very important: discipline. That’s how I managed to go through these years of isolation. I led a very disciplined life, and that’s hard I managed to keep my faith. Young people these days perhaps do not put such a value on discipline, but if they only knew how much it would help them in times of trouble, then I think they will learn to value discipline a lot more than they do now.

Q.5  We believe that good business does need to protect and respect human rights. My question is: What is the biggest challenge to you, apart from education, to continue non-violence campaign to protect human rights? (提問者自稱來自名為「Business and Human Rights Resource Centre」的機構。坦白說,老側不太明白此問題跟其開場白有何關係。)

A.5  Well, the greatest challenge is trying to establish rule of law in Burma, and that means an independent judiciary. … In order to do good business, I think we need rule of law as well. So it’s businessmen who would also profit from rule of law. We think that unless there is an independent judiciary and the rule of law, we cannot do any great progress in human rights and democracy, and we certainly will not be able to achieve the kind of business climate that promotes human rights.

Q.6  Because there are relatively few female politicians now in the world, I’d like to ask, from your personal experience, what do you think of women in politics? (提問者乃一年青女子,自報是港大學生。)

A.6  Well, I think there’s a great deal of women in politics. There are a lot of women in the National League of Democracy, and they work very hard, they’re effective, and sometimes I think they are a lot more helpful than the men. They’re more modest, and they’re more reasonable. There’re lots and lots of things at which women are better. Although I appreciate my male colleagues, I must say I love my women colleagues, and I think more women should be involved in the politics for the good of the human race.

Q.7  What is your current position on sanction against Burma, and on investing in Burma? (提問者自報乃港大 Department of Politics and Public Administration 之人。)

A.7  We have brought out this case on sanction, making it quite clear that, as far as we have been able to find out, economic sanctions have not been making hurt to the people of Burma very much. But it seems to be hurting the regime to the extent that they wish the sanctions to be removed as soon as possible. So we have to accept the fact that sanctions are mainly political weapons although they do have economic consequences, and we have to try to achieve these political goals that would make it quite unnecessary for any country in this world to impose economic sanctions on Burma. (此段答案,部份錄音老側雖番聽多次仍未能聽清楚。現有版本可能與昂山素姬所說有輕微出入。)

Q.8  I understand that you’re keen to promote investment into your country. The question I have is: What if the foreign investor has to partner with some of the businessmen in the so-called “blacklist”? (提問者乃一洋漢。老側聽不清楚他自報的機構為何,對其問題所指的 blacklist 不甚了了。)

A.8   Well, there are some other ways of investing in Burma, I hope. I know that it’s very difficult to avoid those businesses that have connections with the government, because it’s still those who have contact with the government would have the best opportunities. But we would like the business world to investigate the possibility of linking up with other businesses in Burma which are free of goverment control and would not fall into the ? category, because I’m sure you can do it if you really would cause enough edict (?). And unless we can create at the same time political freedom as economic freedom in Burma, we’re not able to really achieve democracy.(部份答案老側無法聽清楚,只好用 ? 顯示。)

Q.9  There has been recent reports that you will travel around the country. I’d like to hear if you could confirm that. If so, and if you’ve been given assurances of your safety, and if you do plan to travel, when will you be travelling, where will you be going, and what will you be doing. (提問者自報乃 International Herald Tribune 記者。)

A.9  I hope I’ll be able to travel out of Rangoon in a month or two. ??? I have not been given any assurances by the authority, but I believe that it is the right of every citizen in Burma to have security assured by the government. It is the duty of the government to make sure that all its citizens are safe and secure. Where I shall be going? I cannot yet say, because we’re trying to work out a sensible itinery, and as soon as we have decided on that, we shall make that public.

Q.10  The Chinese Nobel Prize Laureate, Liu Xiaobo, is still in prison in China. As a fellow Noble Laureate, what message do you have for Liu Xiaobo and for other Chinese dissidents who are in similar situations? And also if you do get a chance to talk to the Chinese leaders, I’m wondering what would you say to them? (提問者乃一女子,自報為 Voice of America 之人。)

A.10  First of all, my message to all who are imprisoned in some way or the other for their beliefs that I would like to say to them is: You must keep faith with yourself. That’s the most important thing. If you cannot keep faith in yourself, you will not be able to ???.  And my message to the Chinese leaders would be very simple: China is a great country; the Chinese people are a great people with a marvellous and long history behind them; you can afford to take risk, you can afford to be daring, you can afford to allow room for all kinds of opinions. So that’s my simple message. You’re a greater people than you think you are. So please open up your greatness to everybody else.

尚有其他提問及昂山素姬的回答,見下帖「毋忘六四(一):港人與昂山素姬對話記(三之三)」。